fb
  • Home
  • /
  • Blog
  • /
  • Essentials of International IP Protection

by Mike Vestil 

Essentials of International IP Protection

Contents show

In this article, readers will learn about the importance of international intellectual property (IP) protection, its economic benefits, and its role in promoting innovation, attracting foreign investment, and advancing global trade. The different types of intellectual property protection are examined, such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights.

The article also delves into international IP protection frameworks, such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Enforcement mechanisms, challenges in international IP protection, and strategies for strengthening IP protection are also discussed.

Importance of International IP Protection

Intellectual property (IP) protection is a crucial element in fostering innovation, creativity, and economic growth. IP protection ensures that the rights of inventors, creators, and artists are protected and recognized around the world, making it an essential part of international commerce and trade.

Economic Benefits

One of the most significant aspects of international IP protection is its impact on the global economy. The protection of IP rights enables businesses and individuals to commercialize their innovations and creations, thereby generating revenue and creating jobs. By protecting IP rights internationally, countries can secure their economic interests and benefit from the global market.

Studies have shown a strong correlation between effective IP protection and increased economic prosperity. Countries with robust IP enforcement systems tend to have higher per capita incomes, greater foreign direct investment (FDI), and better-educated workforces.

Additionally, companies operating in countries with strong IP protection are better positioned to create wealth and, consequently, pay higher wages to their employees. Thus, strong international IP protection is a crucial factor in fostering economic growth and overall prosperity.

Encouraging Innovation

Innovation is the lifeblood of the modern economy, and allowing creators to reap the benefits of their inventions is crucial to promoting new ideas and technological advancements. By securing proper IP protection, inventors and creators can safeguard their rights to profit from their works and incentivize further research and development. This creates a cycle of innovation that propels global markets forward by stimulating progress in technology, healthcare, agriculture, entertainment, and countless other industries.

Without such protections in place, innovative entrepreneurs may hesitate to undertake the risks associated with research and development, ultimately stifling progress. Therefore, consistent international IP protection is essential for encouraging and fostering innovation on a global scale.

Attracting Foreign Investment

Foreign investment is a vital component of many nations’ economic strategies. Robust IP protection plays a significant role in attracting foreign investment, as businesses and inventors are more likely to invest in countries where their intellectual property rights are respected and enforced. Improved IP protection creates an environment conducive to risk-taking, as creators and businesses can invest confidently, knowing their rights will be protected.

Investors pay attention to the strength of a country’s IP laws and their enforcement when determining where to invest their time and resources. By offering strong IP protection, countries can demonstrate their commitment to innovation and secure their position as attractive investment destinations.

Protecting Domestic Industries

Effective international IP protection also benefits domestic industries by providing local inventors, artists, and businesses the same level of protection as their international counterparts. This ensures that local creative and innovative talent is nurtured and rewarded, thereby fostering a competitive environment that promotes growth and advancement within national industries.

Furthermore, international IP protection helps prevent unfair competition, such as the importation of counterfeit goods that can undermine the value of domestic products. By enforcing strong IP laws on a global scale, countries can better protect their domestic industries from the harmful effects of intellectual property theft and infringement.

Advancing Global Trade

Global trade relies on the exchange of goods, services, and ideas, which are better facilitated through effective international IP protection. By recognizing and respecting the intellectual property rights of businesses and individuals, countries can foster a collaborative environment that encourages the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and technological advances.

In addition, strong IP enforcement promotes a level playing field for businesses operating internationally. By holding all countries to the same high standards of IP protection, companies can compete fairly and transparently in the global market, ultimately leading to economic growth and progress.

In conclusion, the importance of international IP protection cannot be understated. By safeguarding creators’ and inventors’ rights and fostering innovation, robust IP protection benefits national economies, stimulates growth, and advances global trade. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, the need for effective international IP protection will only continue to grow.

Types of Intellectual Property Protection

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, designs, and symbols, names and images used in commerce. IP protection aims to stimulate economic growth and promote innovation by granting creators exclusive rights to their inventions or other works for a certain period.

This allows them to reap the benefits and recoup their investment into research and development. There are several types of intellectual property protection, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, industrial designs, trade secrets, and geographical indications.

Patents

A patent is a legal right given to an inventor by the government for a fixed period, usually 20 years from the filing date, in exchange for the public disclosure of their invention. Patents grant the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the claimed invention within the country that granted the patent. This protection allows inventors to exclusively market their invention and earn royalties through licensing deals.

Patents typically cover new inventions, including tangible products, processes, and machines, as well as new and useful improvements to existing inventions. To be eligible for patent protection, an invention must meet specific criteria: it must be novel, non-obvious, and have a useful purpose.

Trademarks

A trademark is a word, phrase, symbol or design, or a combination thereof, that identifies and distinguishes the source of one party’s goods or services from those of others. Trademarks help consumers differentiate between competing products, ensuring that they are not misled or confused about the origin of the products they purchase.

Trademark protection allows the owner to sue competitors who use similar marks that might confuse consumers or dilute the brand’s distinctiveness. Trademark registration typically lasts as long as the mark remains in commercial use, and regular renewal fees may be required.

Copyrights

Copyright is a legal right that protects original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection extends to published and unpublished works and covers both the expression of the idea and the form in which it is expressed.

Copyright gives the creators of original content the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, publicly perform or display, and create derivative works based on their work, typically for the duration of the author’s life plus a set number of years (usually 50 to 70 years, depending on the region). Unlike patents and trademarks, copyright registration is not mandatory, as protection commences when the work is created and fixed in a tangible medium.

Industrial Designs

Industrial design rights protect the visual appearance of an article or product that is new and distinctive. This can encompass the shape, configuration, pattern, or ornamentation that gives a product a unique aesthetic appeal, making it more appealing to consumers.

Industrial design protection allows the owner to exclude others from making, using, or selling products that embody the same or similar design. Registration of an industrial design generally lasts for a finite period, typically between 10 and 25 years, and involves regular maintenance and renewal fees.

Trade Secrets

Trade secrets consist of information that has commercial value and is not known to the public, which derives economic value from being kept confidential. Examples of trade secrets include manufacturing techniques, recipes, methods of operation, product formulas, and customer lists.

Trade secret protection allows businesses to safeguard their valuable information by preventing unauthorized disclosure, misappropriation, or unauthorized use. Unlike patents, trade secrets last indefinitely as long as the information remains confidential, but their protection can be lost if the secret becomes widely known or legally reverse-engineered.

Geographical Indications

Geographical Indications (GI) are signs used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities, reputation, or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that origin. Examples of geographical indications include Champagne (from Champagne, France), Parmigiano-Reggiano (from Parma, Italy), and Darjeeling Tea (from Darjeeling, India).

Protection of geographical indications helps promote and protect regional products, maintain quality standards, and support rural economies. Consumers benefit from GI protection because it ensures the authenticity and quality of the goods they purchase, while preventing false or misleading labels. GI protection typically lasts indefinitely, as long as the products continue to meet the established criteria for the designated region.

International IP Protection Frameworks

Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, designs, symbols, and images used in commerce. Protecting these creations on an international scale is of utmost importance to stimulate innovation and creative output. This is why several international frameworks have been put in place to govern the protection of intellectual property worldwide.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with issues related to intellectual property. Established in 1967, WIPO’s mission is to promote innovation and creativity internationally by ensuring an effective and balanced system of IP rights for inventors and creators.

WIPO’s primary functions include facilitating the development of international IP treaties and agreements, offering services for resolving disputes related to IP, providing information and analysis on intellectual property issues, and offering technical assistance to developing countries in the field of IP.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international body that deals with the rules of trade between nations. Established in 1995, the WTO provides a platform for negotiating and implementing trade agreements, as well as monitoring and enforcing trade policies. Intellectual property rights are a vital aspect of the international trading system, and the WTO plays a significant role in the protection and enforcement of these rights.

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

The TRIPS Agreement is one of the most important international frameworks for IP protection. Established in 1995, under the auspices of the WTO, the Agreement sets the minimum standards of protection and enforcement for various forms of intellectual property rights.

TRIPS covers patents, copyright, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, integrated circuit layout designs, trade secrets, and test data protection. It requires all WTO members to provide minimum standards of protection and enforcement for these rights in their national laws, as well as respecting non-discrimination, proportionality, and balance.

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

The Paris Convention is one of the oldest and most widely recognized international IP treaties. Signed in 1883, it provides a framework for the protection of industrial property, including patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. The Paris Convention aims to facilitate the registration and protection of intellectual property in multiple countries through a single application process.

One of the critical principles of the Paris Convention is national treatment, which requires each contracting state to afford the same protection to nationals of other contracting states as it does to its own citizens.

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

The Berne Convention, adopted in 1886, is an international treaty that covers the protection of literary and artistic works, such as books, music, paintings, sculptures, films, and architectural designs. It establishes minimum standards of protection for the authors of these works, ensuring that they receive proper recognition and compensation for their creations.

The Berne Convention contains several essential principles, such as the automatic protection of works without formalities and the minimum duration of protection, which varies depending on the type of work and the author’s lifespan.

Madrid Protocol for the International Registration of Marks

The Madrid Protocol is an international treaty that simplifies the process of obtaining trademark protection in multiple countries. It allows trademark owners to file a single application and pay one set of fees to register and maintain their marks in numerous countries. The Madrid Protocol, which came into force in 1996, currently has over 100 contracting parties.

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)

The Patent Cooperation Treaty is an international agreement that streamlines the process of filing for patent protection in multiple countries. By using the PCT system, an inventor can submit a single international patent application that is then used as the basis for the patent protection process in the chosen countries. The PCT, administered by WIPO, currently has 153 contracting states.

Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure

The Budapest Treaty simplifies the process of fulfilling the deposit requirements for microorganisms in patent applications. It allows inventors to deposit microorganisms at a single international depositary authority, which will then be recognized by all contracting states involved in the patent application process. Signed in 1977 and administered by WIPO, the Budapest Treaty has over 80 contracting parties.

Enforcement Mechanisms

Intellectual property (IP) enforcement mechanisms are crucial for protecting the rights of creators and innovators, promoting creativity and innovation, and ensuring fair competition in the global marketplace. These mechanisms vary greatly according to the country or jurisdiction in which they are applied. However, in general, enforcement mechanisms can be divided into national and international levels.

National IP Enforcement Agencies

National IP enforcement agencies are responsible for monitoring and investigating cases of IP infringement and enforcing IP laws within their respective countries. These agencies may include patent offices, trademark offices, copyright offices, and other specialized bodies dealing with various aspects of IP rights.

These agencies work closely with the police, customs, and other law enforcement agencies to monitor and investigate cases of IP theft, counterfeiting, and piracy. They also cooperate with other national and international bodies to exchange information, build capacity, and strengthen enforcement efforts.

In addition to these agencies, various other government bodies, such as ministries of commerce, industry, and justice, may be responsible for implementing and enforcing IP policies and laws.

Legal and Judicial Frameworks

A country’s legal and judicial frameworks play a key role in the enforcement of IP rights. This involves the prosecution of IP infringement cases, granting injunctions or damages to the affected parties, and promoting awareness of IP laws among the public and judiciary.

In most countries, IP infringements are dealt with through civil and/or criminal legal systems. Civil remedies for IP infringements may include monetary damages, injunctions, and orders to destroy infringing goods. Criminal sanctions for IP infringements may entail imprisonment, fines, or seizure and destruction of infringing items.

Judicial authorities play an essential role in interpreting and applying IP laws and regulations, establishing legal precedent, and ensuring compliance with international treaty obligations. Effective IP enforcement requires a well-functioning judiciary that understands the complexities of IP law and can adjudicate cases fairly and expeditiously.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Arbitration and Mediation Center offers alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms, including arbitration and mediation, for resolving IP disputes. The Center provides resources and support for parties seeking to resolve disputes relating to IP rights, technology transfer, and other issues involving the protection and use of IP.

These ADR mechanisms are often faster, more cost-effective, and more flexible than traditional litigation, making them attractive options for parties involved in IP disputes. Additionally, the WIPO Center provides assistance to national and regional IP offices and other organizations seeking to establish ADR procedures for resolving disputes.

WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism

The World Trade Organization (WTO) provides a dispute settlement mechanism for member countries to resolve trade disputes, including disputes over IP rights. Under the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), member countries have obligations to protect and enforce IP rights, and can challenge other members if they believe these obligations are not being met.

The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism is a formal, rules-based system in which disputes are adjudicated by panels of experts, with the possibility of appeals to a higher-level appellate body. The mechanism aims to resolve disputes in a timely manner and provides remedies, such as compensation, suspension of concessions, or the withdrawal of measures found to be inconsistent with WTO rules.

International Trade Commission

In the United States, the International Trade Commission (ITC) is an independent federal agency responsible for investigating and adjudicating cases related to unfair trade practices, including IP infringements. The ITC has the authority to issue exclusion orders, which prevent the importation of infringing goods into the United States, and cease and desist orders, which prohibit the sale of infringing products within the country.

ITC proceedings are separate from other enforcement mechanisms, such as civil litigation in federal courts, and serve as an additional means for rights holders to protect their IP.

Customs and Border Protection

Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agencies play a significant role in enforcing IP rights by preventing the importation and exportation of counterfeit and pirated goods. CBP officers have the authority to examine and detain goods suspected of infringing IP rights, and can work with rights holders to verify the authenticity of the goods in question.

To facilitate this process, national customs authorities often collaborate with IP rights holders, who can provide information about their products and help identify counterfeit items. National customs agencies may also work with international partners to share information and strengthen enforcement efforts against cross-border IP infringements.

Challenges in International IP Protection

Intellectual property (IP) protection is of paramount importance for businesses, creators and inventors to thrive in the competitive global market. International IP protection faces numerous challenges, including disparities in IP laws and regulations, cultural differences, and the rapid advancement of digital technology. In this article, we will outline some of the key challenges in international IP protection, including issues related to developing countries, traditional knowledge, balancing public interest, and combating IP theft, counterfeiting, and digital piracy.

IP Protection in Developing Countries

One of the most significant challenges to international IP protection is the disparity between developed and developing countries’ legal systems and enforcement mechanisms. Developing countries may not prioritize IP protection due to limited financial resources, infrastructure, and expertise in IP-related matters as these are often allocated to more pressing issues like poverty alleviation and public health.

In addition, these countries may lack a strong IP culture, implying that their societies may not place a high value on the protection of intellectual property rights. This can lead to weak implementation and enforcement of IP laws, resulting in a higher prevalence of IP violations like counterfeiting and piracy.

Moreover, developing countries may also be slow to adopt and enforce international IP agreements, such as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), due to fears that stricter IP rights might hinder the transfer of technology, economic growth, and access to essential medicines. Consequently, this situation creates an uneven playing field for international businesses and inventors seeking to protect their rights in such jurisdictions.

Respecting Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expressions

Another challenge involves integrating the protection of traditional knowledge and cultural expressions within the current IP framework. Traditional knowledge, such as indigenous peoples’ medical practices or customary agricultural practices, has long been a part of human culture. However, this knowledge is often exploited by large corporations without acknowledging the original source or providing appropriate compensation to indigenous communities.

Ensuring that the IP regime adequately acknowledges and protects traditional knowledge and cultural expressions requires finding new approaches that both respect the cultural heritage and provide economic benefits to the communities in question. This can be challenging due to differences in understanding, documenting and regulating the ownership of such knowledge, as well as creating systems of equity in compensation for its use.

Balancing IP Protection and Public Interest

International IP protection also faces the challenge of balancing private interests with the wider public interest. For instance, strong patent protection for pharmaceutical innovation can encourage research and development. However, it can also prevent the affordability and accessibility of essential medicines in low-income countries. Governments and international organizations must strike the right balance to ensure that IP rights do not hinder the broader public interest, such as access to essential medicines, technologies, and knowledge.

Addressing Intellectual Property Theft and Counterfeiting

Intellectual property theft and counterfeiting are on the rise, affecting businesses worldwide, with a significant impact on competitive advantage, financial performance, and reputation. To combat these issues, companies need improved cooperation and coordination among various national and international law enforcement agencies, as well as stronger penalties and enforcement mechanisms for the perpetrators of IP crimes.

Moreover, public education and awareness campaigns can play a crucial role in raising awareness about the negative consequences of IP theft and counterfeiting on the economy and innovation.

Digital Piracy and Protection of Digital Content

As digital technology continues to advance, with the rapid growth of e-commerce, streaming platforms, and online file sharing, the protection of digital content becomes increasingly challenging. Digital piracy, illegal distribution, and copying of copyrighted content cause significant revenue losses for businesses and creators.

To address this issue, companies and governments must implement technological protection measures, such as encryption and access controls, invest in digital rights management systems, enact and enforce strong legislations, and cooperate internationally to tackle piracy on a global scale.

Jurisdictional Issues

Lastly, jurisdictional issues play a significant role in the challenges faced by international IP protection. The current international IP treaties and agreements, while providing a basic foundation for cooperation in the protection of IP rights, often do not comprehensively address the complex jurisdictional issues that arise due to differing national legal systems and enforcement mechanisms.

This can lead to various issues, including difficulties in obtaining international patent protection, enforcing IP rights across borders, and seeking redress for IP infringements in foreign jurisdictions. Consequently, governments and international organizations need to work together to build comprehensive and harmonized IP systems that promote fair and effective protection for IP rights holders across the globe.

Strategies for Strengthening International IP Protection

The protection of Intellectual Property (IP) rights has become crucial in today’s globalized economy. Countries across the globe are keen to foster innovation and creativity, which relies on effective IP protection. As the cross-border flow of goods, services, and technologies increases, international concerns about IP protection have grown commensurately. This article discusses several strategies aimed at strengthening international IP protection.

Enhancing International Collaboration

To effectively combat the infringement of intellectual property rights on a global level, countries must foster international collaboration. This can be achieved by forming partnerships and signing agreements among countries, which facilitate the exchange of information, resources, and best practices. Such collaborative efforts can help to pool resources and promote a more integrated approach towards IP protection.

International organizations like the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) play a crucial role in this regard by providing a platform for member countries to negotiate, discuss and collaborate on IP issues. Additionally, countries can establish bilateral and multilateral agreements that focus on IP protection, such as customs cooperation agreements, which facilitate information exchange related to IP infringement and counterfeiting.

Capacity Building and Technical Assistance

Developing countries often face challenges in implementing effective IP protection systems due to limited resources and institutional capacity. In this context, capacity building and technical assistance programs can play a significant role in strengthening their national IP systems. These programs generally involve training, transfer of expertise, and resources to help countries develop IP policies and enforcement mechanisms.

International organizations such as WIPO, WTO, and the World Customs Organization (WCO) provide technical assistance programs that focus on various aspects of IP protection, including legal and institutional framework development, human capacity building, and modernization of IP administration systems. Furthermore, developed countries can provide technical and financial support to developing countries through bilateral agreements, sharing expertise, and best practices.

Awareness and Training Programs

Increasing awareness and understanding of intellectual property rights among businesses, researchers, entrepreneurs, and the general public is crucial for the effective enforcement of IP protection. Various stakeholders, including government agencies, institutions, and industry associations, should work together to create and disseminate educational materials and organize awareness campaigns on the importance of IP rights.

Training programs targeted at law-enforcement agencies, customs officials, judges, attorneys, and other professionals involved in IP protection can also help to ensure that they have the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively address IP violations. International organizations like WIPO offer various training and education programs aimed at IP professionals and stakeholders around the world.

Developing Effective IP Policies and Legal Frameworks

Developing comprehensive IP policies and legal frameworks that protect the rights of creators and innovators while promoting the utilization of IP assets is essential for strengthening international IP protection. Countries should review their existing IP laws and regulations to ensure they are in line with international standards and best practices.

In addition, the harmonization of IP laws and practices among countries can play a vital role in providing a more predictable and transparent environment for businesses operating across borders. International organizations such as WIPO and WTO promote the harmonization of intellectual property laws by providing guidelines and model laws.

Promoting Use of Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms

IP disputes can be complex, time-consuming, and costly, which may create barriers to efficient IP protection. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms, such as arbitration and mediation, can provide a faster and more cost-effective means for resolving IP disputes.

Countries should encourage the use of ADR mechanisms by incorporating them into their national IP laws and providing support for ADR service providers. Additionally, international organizations like WIPO provide ADR services specifically tailored for IP disputes, offering a useful alternative to lengthy and expensive court proceedings.

Improving Enforcement and Monitoring Efforts

Effective enforcement of IP rights is crucial for deterring infringement and ensuring that creators and innovators can reap the benefits of their creations. Countries should improve their enforcement and monitoring efforts by investing in adequate resources, training, and equipment for border control agencies, police, and courts.

Moreover, countries should adopt a multi-stakeholder approach involving government agencies, industry associations, and NGOs to coordinate and enhance IP enforcement efforts. International cooperation is essential in this regard, as many IP violations involve cross-border issues. Working together, countries can improve the global protection of intellectual property rights and create a more conducive environment for innovation and creative industries.

International IP Protection — FAQ

1. What is international IP protection and why is it necessary?

International IP protection refers to the safeguarding of intellectual property (IP) rights across national boundaries. It is critical for inventors, authors, and companies to ensure their creations are protected from exploitation, theft, and unfair usage, thereby securing their financial interests and promoting creativity (WIPO, n.d.).

2. Which global organizations are responsible for enforcing international IP protection?

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and World Trade Organization (WTO) are two international organizations that oversee IP protection. They provide frameworks, treaties, and guidelines to harmonize IP laws across countries and facilitate the enforcement of IP rights (WIPO, n.d.; WTO, n.d.).

3. How can inventors or creators secure international IP protection?

Inventors and creators can secure international IP protection by registering their creations with appropriate national IP offices or through centralized international application systems provided by organizations, such as WIPO’s Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) for patents or the Madrid System for trademarks (WIPO, n.d.).

4. What are some international IP treaties and agreements?

Notable international IP agreements include the Berne Convention for copyright protection, the Paris Convention for industrial property rights, the Patent Cooperation Treaty for patents, and the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks for trademarks (WIPO, n.d.).

5. Can IP rights be enforced in countries where the owner has not registered their work?

Enforcing IP rights in unregistered countries may be challenging. Although some protections, such as copyright, exist automatically, it is generally advised that creators register their IP rights in targeted jurisdictions. Registering provides the owner with legal rights and enhances the ability to protect their creations (WIPO, n.d.).

6. How do businesses protect their IP rights during international trade and cooperation?

Businesses can protect their IP rights during international trade by registering their IP in target markets, including patents, trademarks, and design rights. They should also conduct thorough due diligence, implement robust agreements with partners, and seek legal advice to ensure compliance with relevant laws in the countries involved (U.S. Department of Commerce, n.d.).

Want to make an extra $250 per day online?

I've put together a free quiz on how to find the best online opportunity suited for your personality in the next 5 minutes or less that will allow you to work remotely, with a flexible schedule, from anywhere in the world

About the author 

Mike Vestil

Mike Vestil is the author of the Lazy Man's Guide To Living The Good Life. He also has a YouTube channel with over 700,000 subscribers where he talks about personal development and personal finance.

{"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}
>